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Fuels And Combustion By Sharma And Chander Mohan Pdf Free ((TOP))

Fuels for SI and CI engines, solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, Octane and Cetane rating method, Combustion equipments, combustion stoichiometry, Combustion phenomenon in the SI engines, combustion knock, factors affecting the combustion knock, Control of knock, Combustion chamber designs for SI engine, Combustion phenomenon in the CI engines, Delay period and Diesel knock, Factors affecting delay period, Combustion chamber designs for CI engines, Use of alternate fuels.

Fuels And Combustion By Sharma And Chander Mohan Pdf Free

The increase in the percentage of energy consumption by various sectors makes the fossil sources in deficiency and makes the researchers start to shift to renewable energy sources1. Among the various alternative sources, straight vegetable oil has identical fuel properties, sulphur-free and bio-degradable, which makes it as the substitute for fossil fuels2. The bio-diesel from renewable sources shown positive impacts for better engine performances and cleaner emissions in the automotive sector3. In general, the vegetable oils are classified as edible and non-edible feedstocks. The edible feedstocks namely coconut, olive, palm, peanut, rice bran, soybean and sunflower are the predominant in the production of bio-diesel but leads to risk in food supplies, bio-diversity and increase the cost of the fuel. Therefore, the non-edible feedstocks like cottonseed, jatropha, jojoba, polanga, karanja, linseed, mahua, neem, rubber seed and tobacco were considered as the substitutes4,5.

The bio-origin materials produce a variety of biofuels through the conversion routes of pressing, extraction, chemical processes (hydrolysis and trans-esterification), biochemical processes (fermentation and anaerobic digestion), thermochemical processes (flash pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal liquefaction) and direct combustion6. The reactive extraction is considered as the most viable technology in the production of bio-diesel compared with other methods. The reactive extraction based soxhlet extractor combines the oil extraction and transesterification processes used for the bio-oil production using various seeds7,8. Crotalaria juncea oil, jojoba oil, zanthoxylum bungeanum oil, jatropha oil, indigofera colutea oil, soybean oil, senna occidentalis oil, cassia javanica oil and palm oil were produced with the soxhlet extractor and reported in the literature9,10.

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